自考00604《英美文学选读》复习要点—中英文对照(14)

原创 四川自考  时间:2022-10-20 08:10:50 阅读 115 次

知识点4 托马斯.哈代(以角色与环境为纲,自然主义作家)

知识点概览:

1.托马斯.哈代的主要作品,主题,语言风格及对其文学的贡献

2.哈代小说中环境,氛围描述与人物内心世界的展示

3.托马斯.哈代《德伯家的苔丝》的创作主题及选段

知识点:

1.Thomas Hardy’ s local-colored works include The Trumpet Major, The Return of the Native ,The Woodlanders; also known as“novels of character and environment”.托马斯.哈代晚年的作品最富地方色彩,如《还乡》,《号兵长》,《卡斯特桥市长》,《林地居民》,《德伯家的苔丝》与《无名的裘德》这些作品便是著名的“角色与环境为纲的小说”。

2. FromThe Return of the Nativeon, thetragic sensebecomes thekeynoteof Thomas Hardy’s novels,the conflict between the traditional and the modern is brought to the center of the stage.从《还乡》开始,悲剧意识成为托马斯·哈代小说的主旨,传统与现代之间的冲突成为焦点。

3.Thomas Hardy reveal the conflict between the traditional and the modern in The Mayor of Casterbridge, Tess of the D' Urbervilles and Jude the Obscure.哈代的小说中揭露了传统与现代冲突的作品有《卡斯特桥市长》,《德伯家的苔丝》与《无名的裘德》。

4. Thomas Hardy’s most cheerful and idyllic work is Under the Greenwood Tree. 托马斯·哈代的最愉快,最田园诗般的作品是《绿树林下》。

5. Hardy’sTess of the D’Urbervillesisa fierce attack on the hypocritical morality of the bourgeois society and the capitalist invasion into the country and destruction of the English peasantry towards the end of the century.《德伯家的苔丝》抨击了当时扭曲人性的虚伪道德及破坏乡村宁静的资本主义价值观。

6. Thetragic sense turns into despairin Thomas Hardy’sJude the Obscure, where cornered bythe traditional social morality, the hero and the heroine have to kill their ownwill and passion and return to their former destructive way of life. 在托马斯·哈代的《无名的裘德》中,悲剧性变成绝望,由于被传统的社会道德逼得走投无路,男主人公和女主人公不得不灭掉自己的意志和激情,回到他们以前毁灭性的生活方式。

7.Thomas Hardy’spessimistic view of life predominates most of hislater works and earns him a reputation as a naturalistic writer.托马斯·哈代悲观的人生观主导了大部分他晚期的作品,并给他赢得了自然主义作家的声誉。

8. Thomas Hardy’ s works known as “novels of character and environment” arethe most representatives of him as both a naturalistic and a critical realist writer.托马斯.哈代的作品被誉为“人物与环境小说”,最好的代表了作者自然主义与批判主义的写作特点。

9.In Thomas Hardy’sWessexnovels, there is anapparent nostalgic touch in his description of the simple and beautiful though primitive rural life.在哈代的威塞克斯小说中,他对尽管简陋但是简单、美丽的乡村生活的描述中有一种明显的怀旧情怀。

阅读理解:

1. Still, it was strange that they should have come to her while yet so young; more than strange, it was impressive, interesting, pathetic. Not guessing the cause, there was nothing to remind him that experience is as to intensity, and not as to duration. Tess’s passing corporeal blight had been her mental harvest.

Questions:

A. Identify the author and the title of the novel from which this passage is taken.

B. Who does “him” refer to?

C. What does the last sentence of the passage mean?

答案:

A. From Thomas Hardy’s Tess of the D’urbervilles (1分)

B.Angel Clare. (1分)

C. It means that the corporeal suffering that Tess has experienced makes her spiritually mature before her age. (2分)

问答题:

1. Thomas Hardy is often regarded as a transitional writer. Some critics believe that he is emotionally traditional and intellectually advanced. How do you understand this idea?

答案:

A. In Hardy’s novel, there is an apparent nostalgic touch in description of the simple and beautiful though primitive rural life, which was gradually declining and disappearing in England at the time. He is always sympathetic with those traditional characters and mourns over their failure and misfortune.

B. On the other hand, he was greatly influenced by Darwin’s theory of “survival of the fittest”, and other modern philosophical thoughts, which led to his pessimistic determinism or naturalism in fiction.

话题讨论:

Write no less than 150 words on each of the following topics in English in the corresponding space on the answer sheet.

1. Why is Hardy regarded as a naturalistic writer in English literature?

Discuss in relation to his novels you know.

答案:

A. He read Darwin’s The Origin of Species and accepted the idea of “survival of the fittest.” He was also influenced by Spencer’s The First Principle, which led him to the belief that man’s fate is predetermined tragic, driven by a combined force of “nature,” bothinside and outside. In his works, man is shown inevitably bound by his won inherent nature and hereditary traits which prompt him to go and search for some specific happiness or success and set him in conflict with the environment. Man proves impotent before Fate, however he tries, and he seldom escapes his ordained destiny. This pessimistic view of life predominates most of Hardy’s later works and earns him a reputation as a naturalistic writer.

B. His best local-colored works are his later ones, such as The Return of the Native (1878), The Trumpet Major (1880), The Mayor of Casterbridge (1886), The Woodlanders (1887), Tess of the D’Urbervilles and Jude the Obscure. These works, known as “novels of character and environment,” are the most representative of him as both a naturalistic and a critical realist writer.

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